Bee Kinds Variety
Of 2009 to help you 2018, 192 bee kinds (Hymenoptera: Apoidea: Anthophila) had been trapped into the Calanques National Playground through both internet and you may dish trap choices. It belonged so you can half a dozen family and you can 38 genera. Megachilidae is the absolute most variety-steeped nearest and dearest, accompanied by Apidae and you may Halictidae, which have 53, 49, and you may 43 varieties, respectively. Andrena Fabricius, 1775 was the newest wealthiest genus, having 33 kinds, while seven genera have been portrayed of the singular kinds (Stelis Panzer, 1806; Protosmia Ducke, 1900; Pseudoanthidium Friese, 1898; Coelioxys Latreille, 1809; Chelostoma Latreille, 1809; Anthidiellum Cockerell, 1904; Amegilla Friese, 1897; Panurgus Panzer, 1806; Supp Dining table step one [online simply] ). Utilising the jackknife step 1 and dos spiders, the complete bee varieties fullness try projected becoming between ± 9.89 and you will ± . The fresh observed fullness for this reason represented 71.step three to help you 79.6% of the projected bee richness ( Dining table 2). New Chao1 approach estimated the newest seen richness as 76.8% of your possible limit fullness ( Table 2). Probably the most numerous varieties try Apis mellifera L. (276 people), with Rhodanthidium septemdentatum (Latreille, 1809), Rh. sticticum (Fabricius, 1787) (174 and 168 people, respectively), and Lasioglossum transitorium (Shenck, 1868) (113 anybody). Ultimately, fifty species (26%) was in fact illustrated by the one private (singletons).
Ecological Characteristics out of Bees
Concerning your environmental attributes from nesting needs, we recognized 59 solitary bee kinds nesting over crushed, 92 solitary bee types nesting underground and you can 23 cleptoparasitic species, corresponding to 29.seven, 47.9, and twelve.0% of total bee types fullness, respectively. I detected five social kinds (bumble bees and you may honey bees-dos.1%). In the long run, this new nesting preferences of fourteen types will still be unfamiliar (7.3%- Supp Dining table step one [online merely] ). Regarding the flowery diet out-of bee species, i unearthed that 105 species (54.7%) foraged with the a variety of bush varieties (i.age., generalist variety, polylectic) and you may 51 species (twenty six.5%) foraged using one bush family otherwise one to/couples bush variety (i.elizabeth., expert species, oligolectic). For the kept thirty six bee varieties (18.8%), the floral eating plan wasn’t understood (elizabeth.grams., to have cleptoparasitic species). not, very generalist species demonstrated an inclination for 1 otherwise several plant families ( Supp Dining table step 1 [on line simply] ). To your 44 singletons, 14 bee kinds (28%) have been gurus, and you will nine bee varieties (18%) had been cleptoparasitic ( Supp Dining table step 1 [on the internet simply] ).
An IUCN position is actually readily available for 178 species (excluding the latest kinds complexes and you can as yet not known kinds). Those types of, 47 variety was basically classified because investigation deficient (DD-26.4%), 124 types was in fact the very least alarmed (LC-69.6%), half a dozen types was in fact close endangered (NT-step 3.4%; Andrena ovatula (Kirby, 1802), Colletes albomaculatus (Lucas, 1849), Dasypoda argentata Panzer, 1809, Halictus quadricinctus (Fabricius, 1776), Lasioglossum prasinum (Smith, 1848), and L. pygmaeum (Schenck, 1853)), and something species was sensed threatened (EN-0.6%; L. soror (Saunders, 1901)- Supp Table step 1 best teen hookup apps [online merely] ). About three oligolectic types were one of the eight endangered bee kinds. A. ovatula and C. albomaculatus is pros with the Fabaceae, D. argentata is a professional to the Caprifoliaceae.
From 2009 to help you 2018, 38 types of hover flies (Diptera: Syrphidae) have been trapped in Calanques Federal Park. It belonged to help you 24 genera ( Supp Desk dos [on the internet just] ). The absolute most abundant genera were Paragus Latreille, 1804 (33 anybody), Meliscaeva Frey, 1946 (fourteen someone), and you will Sphaerophoria Lepeletier de Saint-Fargeau Audinet-Serville into the Latreille, 1828 (13 some one), whereas 20 types (53%) was basically portrayed because of the one personal ( Supp Dining table dos [on line simply] ). The bee flies (Diptera: Bombyliidae) was illustrated of the 20 types, and four singletons (25%) ( Supp Desk step three [on the internet only] ). New estimate of overall types richness out of hover flies and you may bee flies was ranging from 83 and you can 97 variety by using the jackknife 1 and you will 2 indexes, respectively. Thus, the newest seen richness portrayed 59.8–69.9% of one’s estimated hover travel and you may bee fly richness ( Table dos).