step three.3. Exposure Situations
Compared with men with BMI? 25 kg/m 2 , the age-adjusted risk of osteoporosis was over four-fold higher in those with BMI < 25 (odds ratio (OR) 4.4 (1.51, ) in age-adjusted model (Table 3). The association between BMI and osteopenia was similar among overweight/obese and normal weight men, although not statistically significant (Table 3).
Each other Bmi and you can pounds had been coordinated that have BMD, and you will BMC indications and most powerful Pearson’s correlation coefficients was indeed found between pounds and you may BMC overall hip and you will trochanter places and you will new weakest of them was between Bmi and you may femoral shoulder BMC. New correlations anywhere between many years and BMD and you will BMC signs was basically bad (Desk cuatro).
The age-adjusted proportion from BMD and you can BMC adaptation said of the Body mass index and you may weight was revealed when you look at the Table 5. Lbs had a tendency to let you know greater variations in BMD and you may BMC delivery whatsoever brand new learnt skeletal websites as compared to Bmi. It was mirrored by the steeper mountain (?) of your particular linear regression contours. The very best difference in BMD and you can BMC distribution checked at trochanter BMC accompanied by lumbar BMC to possess pounds. Pounds is a vital predictor of BMD and you will BMC variation during the old Iranian males.
In this study, both BMI and weight were associated with BMD, and obesity significantly decreased the risk for osteoporosis in men. These results are consistent with most previous studies, particularly in postmenopausal women, which indicated that lower BMI and weight were associated with lower BMD. Prospective studies found that the early postmenopausal women who have low BMI lose more bones compared to those with higher BMI tertiles [4, 8]. In other cross-sectional studies, however, thinness is related to both osteoporosis and increased fracture risk [10, 11]. Iqbal et al. found that low BMI is a good indicator for referral of women less than 60 years old for measurements of BMD. Similar studies also reported a consistent finding that lower BMI was associated with lower BMD [5, 6, 28]. In a study similar to ours, those with lower BMI were at higher risk of low BMD . The Studies of National Osteoporosis Foundation and others suggested that low BMI should be included in the risk assessment tools for evaluation of osteoporosis and osteoporotic fracture risk [29–31]. We found that men with BMI < 25 had 4.4 (95% CI 1.5, 12.8) times higher age-adjusted risk of osteoporosis than men with BMI ? 25. In contrast, Steinschneider et al. in a cross-sectional study reported that the correlation between BMD at the femoral neck and BMI was highly positive among postmenopausal women. A hospital-based study conducted in elderly men reported that overweight and obese men were more likely to have osteoporosis and osteopenia . The possible explanation for the discrepancies between these results might be related to populations, research designs, sampling methods, and methodological differences.
The fresh new mechanisms which adipose tissue exerts positive effects towards the BMD condition are not totally obvious. The fresh new putative process advantages out-of fatty tissue for skeletal ethics most likely stays in the fresh role of numerous adipokines in bone building work due to influence on one another creation and you can resorption. Recently, limbs might have been believed a keen hormonal organ impacting pounds handle and you will sugar homoeostasis from the strategies off bone-derived things instance osteocalcin and you can osteopontin [23, 34–36]. The fresh new putative crosstalk between body weight while the skeleton constitutes a good homoeostatic views program in which adipokines and you can molecules produced from the osteoblasts and you will osteoclasts portray the web link out of an active bone-adipose axis [34–36]. Obesity is additionally of BMD of the conversion out-of androgen so you’re able to estrogen , and that advances bone mass in folks [38, 39] and you will keeps compliment plasma levels of insulin Chelsea MA sugar baby and you may regulating items and insulin-instance gains grounds-step one, leptin, and you may adiponectin . Likewise, carrying excess fat brings cushioning into the cool in case of an effective slip . But not, this new components in which most of these events are present are unsure.